Hilbert, Cat

Shut de Do (Gospel Christian Song)

Randy Stonehill

Shut de do, keep out de debbil,
Shut de do, keep de debbil in the night,
Shut de do, keep out de debbil,
|: Light a candle, everything's all right. :|
Oh, when I was a baby child,
(Shut de do, keep out de debbil)
Good and bad, wasjust a game,
(Shut de do, keep de debbil in the night)
But many years and many trials
(Shut de do, keep out de debbil)
They proved to me that they're not the same.
(Shut de do, keep de debbil in the night)

Shut de do, keep out de debbil,
Shut de do, keep de debbil in the night,
Shut de do, keep out de debbil,
|: Light a candle, everything's all right. :|

2. Oh, Satan is an evil charmer,
(Shut de do, keep out de debbil)
He's hungry for a soul to hurt,
(Shut de do, keep de debbil in the night)
And without your holy armor,
(Shut de do, keep out de debbil)
He will eat you for dessert.
(Shut de do, keep de debbil in the night)

Shut de do, keep out de debbil,
Shut de do, keep de debbil in the night,
Shut de do, keep out de debbil,
|: Light a candle, everything's all right. :|

Say der, hey, hey, hey
Shut de do
Hey, hey, hey
Shut de do
Hey, hey, hey
You better shut it.
Say a prayer he won't be back no more.

3. My mama used to sing this song,
(Shut de do, keep out de debbil)
My papa used to sing it too,
(Shut de do, keep de debbil in the night)
Jesus called and took them home,
(Shut de do, keep out de debbil)
And so I sing this song for you.
(Shut de do, keep de debbil in the night)

Shut de do, keep out de debbil,
Shut de do, keep de debbil in the night,
Shut de do, keep out de debbil,
|: Light a candle, everything's all right. :|

(You better)
Shut de do, keep out de debbil,
(You gotta)
Shut de do, keep de debbil in the night,
Shut de do, keep out de debbil,
|: Light a candle, everything's all right.
Light a candle, everything's all right. :|
Hilbert, Cat

the Prophet Omega

one of the most enigmatic fringe figures in Nashville’s musical history has to be the prophet omega. he was a radio evangelist who broadcast from his own apartment, “Apt. Q258 at 488 Lamont Drive,” a place he called the “Peaceway Temple”. I first found out about him through my friend Al Kooper* who gave me 45 minutes worth of the Prophet's sermons and ad-lib commercials for the Shipp Moving Company and J&B Boutique.
I loved every word of it. the sound of his voice!
no one knows for certain when the broadcasts were made, most people estimate the 70's. if I could travel back in time, I would be in the front row of apartment Q258.
as the mr. music head tour of 1989 began I brought the Prophet tape with me. each morning when Rick Fox, Mike Hodges and I would start up our rent-a-van for the next city, we would put on the Prophet. eventually I knew every word and could do a pretty good imitation.
little did we know the same was happening in tour buses all around the U.S. supposedly the Rolling Stones were fans, as well as Bob Dylan, and Melissa Etheridge. in fact the Prophet Omega tape was the smash hit of the rock band tour bus circuit!

In their 2000 documentary Friends Seen and Unseen, Demetria Kalodimos and Kathy Conkwright unmasked the Prophet as the late Omega Townsend, a former carny who became a fixture on the “prophet circuit” offering advice, readings and lucky numbers to the spiritually curious. by the end of their film he has fittingly become an ice cream vendor, spreading joy through the neighborhood from the window of an ice cream truck. the most poignant moment of the film for me was when demetria and kathy played my song I am what I am for his 20-something son and daughter. they cried at hearing his voice again. happy tears I think.

I have used snippets of the Prophet's voice in 3 songs now: I am what I am from young lions, I know what I know and that is all I know and I know it from coming attractions, and troubles from side three.
the trick has been the timing of each phrase, which needs to fall rhythmically just as a singer's phrases would. it's never been a problem though since the Prophet is very close in delivery to a bluesman or even a James Brown-type soul singer. of the many singers I've worked with, no one's voice intrigues and beguiles me quite like the Prophet Omega's.

amen, ain't that right about it!

*any self-proclaimed music lover should know Al's contributions to the music of Bob Dylan, (organ on like a rolling stone) the Stones (french horn on you can't always get what you want), the bands he started Blues Project and Blood Sweat, and Tears, his studio work with Hendrix, Cream, The Who, B.B. King, Ray Charles, George Harrison, etc. his discovery and production of Lynyrd Skynyrd, and so many other historic musical moments. Al is a dear friend, a gifted musician, ranconteur, musicologist, and one funny guy. this year he was given the Les Paul Award.
Hilbert, Cat

Franciscan Order

Most Franciscans are members of Roman Catholic religious orders founded by Saint Francis of Assisi. Besides Roman Catholic communities, there are also Old Catholic, Anglican, Lutheran, ecumenical and Non-denominational Franciscan communities.
The most prominent group is the Order of Friars Minor, commonly called simply the "Franciscans." They seek to follow most directly the manner of life that Saint Francis led. This Order is a mendicant religious order of men tracing their origin to Francis of Assisi. It comprises three separate groups, each considered a religious order in its own right. These are the Observants, most commonly simply called "Franciscan friars," the Capuchins, and the Conventual Franciscans. They all live according to a body of regulations known as "The Rule of St. Francis".[1]
Contents [hide]
1 Name
2 Beginning of the brotherhood
3 Last years of Francis
4 Development of the order after the death of Francis
4.1 Dissensions during the life of Francis
4.2 Development to 1239
4.3 1239 - 1274
4.4 1274 - 1300
4.5 Persecution
4.6 Renewed controversy on the question of poverty
4.7 Separate congregations
4.7.1 Clareni
4.7.2 Minorites of Narbonne
4.7.3 Reform of Johannes de Vallibus
4.8 Unification
5 New World missions
6 Modern times
6.1 Distinguished Franciscans
7 Poor Clares
8 Third Order
8.1 Secular Franciscan Order
8.2 Third Order Regular
9 Franciscans International
10 Ecumenical, Non-Roman Catholic and Non-denominational Franciscans
11 Visions and Stigmata
12 Franciscan Custody of the Holy Land
13 Contributions
14 See also
15 Notes
16 References
16.1 Books
16.2 Articles
17 External links
17.1 Official websites
17.1.1 Three branches of First Order
17.1.2 Regular and Secular Third Order
17.2 Lutheran Franciscans
17.3 Anglican Franciscan
17.4 Non-denominational Franciscan
18 Research resources
[edit]Name



Clare of Assisi (1194-1253), founder of the Poor Clares, in a painting by Simone Martini (1284-1344) in the Basilica of San Francesco d'Assisi.
The official Latin name of the Orders of Friars Minor is the Ordo Fratrum Minorum.[2] St. Francis thus referred to his followers as "Fraticelli", meaning "Little Brothers". Franciscan brothers are informally called friars or the Minorites. The modern organization of the Friars Minor now comprises three separate branches: the 'Friars Minor' (OFM); the 'Friars Minor Conventual' (OFM Conv), and the 'Friars Minor Capuchin' (OFM Cap).[3]
The women who comprise the "Second" Order of the movement are most commonly called Poor Clares in English-speaking countries. The order is called the "Order of St. Clare" (O.S.C.).
The Third Order, or Third Order of Penance, has tens of thousands of members, as it includes both men and women, both living in religious communities under the traditional religious vows, as well as those who live regular lives in society, while trying to live the ideals of the movement in their daily lives.
[edit]Beginning of the brotherhood

A sermon which Francis heard in 1209 on Mt 10:9 made such an impression on him that he decided to devote himself wholly to a life of apostolic poverty. Clad in a rough garment, barefoot, and, after the Evangelical precept, without staff or scrip, he began to preach repentance.[4]
He was soon joined by a prominent fellow townsman, Bernardo di Quintavalle, who contributed all that he had to the work, and by other companions, who are said to have reached the number of eleven within a year. The brothers lived in the deserted lazar-house of Rivo Torto near Assisi; but they spent much of their time traveling through the mountainous districts of Umbria, always cheerful and full of songs, yet making a deep impression on their hearers by their earnest exhortations. Their life was extremely ascetic, though such practises were apparently not prescribed by the first rule which Francis gave them (probably as early as 1209), which seems to have been nothing more than a collection of Scriptural passages emphasizing the duty of poverty.


Regula bullata, the Rule confirmed by Honorius III
In spite of some similarities between this principle and some of the fundamental ideas of the followers of Peter Waldo, the brotherhood of Assisi succeeded in gaining the approval of Pope Innocent III.[5] What seems to have impressed first the Bishop of Assisi, Guido, then Cardinal Giovanni di San Paolo and finally Innocent himself, was their utter loyalty to the Church and the clergy. Innocent III was not only the Pope reigning during the life of St. Francis of Assisi, but he was also responsible for helping to construct the Church Francis was being called to rebuild. Innocent III and the Fourth Lateran Council helped maintain the church in Europe. Innocent probably saw in them a possible answer to his desire for an orthodox preaching force to counter heresy. Many legends have clustered around the decisive audience of Francis with the Pope. The realistic account in Matthew Paris, according to which the Pope originally sent the shabby saint off to keep swine, and only recognized his real worth by his ready obedience, has, in spite of its improbability, a certain historical interest, since it shows the natural antipathy of the older Benedictine monasticism to the plebeian mendicant orders. The group was tonsured and Francis was ordained as a deacon, allowing him to read Gospels in the church.[6]
[edit]Last years of Francis

Francis had to suffer from the dissensions just alluded to and the transformation which they operated in the originally simple constitution of the brotherhood, making it a regular order under strict supervision from Rome. Exasperated by the demands of running a growing and fractious Order, Francis asked Pope Honorius III for help in 1219. He was assigned Cardinal Ugolino as protector of the order by the Pope. Francis resigned the day-to-day running of the Order into the hands of others but retained the power to shape the Order's legislation, writing a Rule in 1221 which he revised and had approved in 1223. At least after about 1223, the day-to-day running of the Order was in the hands of Brother Elias of Cortona, an able friar who would be elected as leader of the friars a few years after Francis' death (1226) but who aroused much opposition because of his autocratic style of leadership. He planned and built the Basilica of San Francesco d'Assisi in which Saint Francis is buried, a building including the friary Sacro Convento, which still today is the spiritual centre of the order.


"The Confirmation of the Franciscan Rule" by Domenico Ghirlandaio (1449-1494), Capella Sassetti, Florence.
In the external successes of the brothers, as they were reported at the yearly general chapters, there was much to encourage Francis. Caesarius of Speyer, the first German provincial, a zealous advocate of the founder's strict principle of poverty, began in 1221 from Augsburg, with twenty-five companions, to win for the order the land watered by the Rhine and the Danube. In 1224 Agnellus of Pisa led a small group of friars to England. The branch of the order arriving in England became known as the greyfriars.[7] Beginning at Greyfriars at Canterbury, the ecclesiastical capital, they moved on to London, the political capital and Oxford, the intellectual capital. From these three bases the Franciscans swiftly expanded to embrace the principal towns of England.
[edit]Development of the order after the death of Francis


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[edit]Dissensions during the life of Francis
The controversy about issues of poverty, which extends through the first three centuries of Franciscan history, began in the lifetime of the founder. The ascetic brothers Matthew of Narni and Gregory of Naples, a nephew of Ugolino, the two vicars-general to whom Francis had entrusted the direction of the order during his absence, carried through at a chapter which they held certain stricter regulations in regard to fasting and the reception of alms, which really departed from the spirit of the original rule. It did not take Francis long, on his return, to suppress this insubordinate tendency; but he was less successful in regard to another of an opposite nature which soon came up. Elias of Cortona originated a movement for the increase of the worldly consideration of the order and the adaptation of its system to the plans of the hierarchy which conflicted with the original notions of the founder and helped to bring about the successive changes in the rule already described. Francis was not alone in opposition to this lax and secularizing tendency. On the contrary, the party which clung to his original views and after his death took his "Testament" for their guide, known as Observantists or Zelanti, was at least equal in numbers and activity to the followers of Elias. The conflict between the two lasted many years, and the Zelanti won several notable victories, in spite of the favor shown to their opponents by the papal administration—until finally the reconciliation of the two points of view was seen to be impossible, and the order was actually split into halves.
[edit]Development to 1239


Anthony of Padua (c1195-1231) with the Infant Christ, painting by Antonio de Pereda (c1611-1678).
When the General Chapter could not agree on a common interpretation of the 1223 Rule it sent a delegation including St. Anthony of Padua to Pope Gregory IX for an authentic interpretation of this piece of papal legislation. The bull Quo elongati of Gregory IX declared that the Testament of St. Francis was not legally binding and offered an interpretation of poverty that would allow the order to continue to develop. The earliest leader of the strict party was rather Brother Leo, the witness of the ecstasies of Francis on Monte Alverno and the author of the Speculum perfectionis, a strong polemic against the laxer party. Next to him came John Parenti, the first successor of Francis in the headship of the order. In 1232 Elias succeeded him, and under him the order developed its ministries and presence in the towns significantly. Many new houses were founded, especially in Italy, and in many of them special attention was paid to education. The somewhat earlier settlements of Franciscan teachers at the universities (in Paris, for example, where Alexander of Hales was teaching) continued to develop. Contributions toward the promotion of the order's work, and especially the building of the Basilica in Assisi, came in abundantly. Funds could only be accepted on behalf of the friars for determined, imminent, real necessities that could not be provided for from begging. Gregory IX, in Quo elongati, authorized agents of the order to have custody of such funds where they could not be spent immediately. Elias pursued with great severity the principal leaders of the opposition, and even Bernardo di Quintavalle, the founder's first disciple, was obliged to conceal himself for years in the forest of Monte Sefro. St. Clare of Assisi, whom St. Francis saw as a co-founder of his movement, consistently backed Elias as faithfully reflecting the mind of their founder.
[edit]1239 - 1274


A Franciscan Convent in Mafra in Portugal.
Elias had governed the order from the center, imposing his authority on the provinces (as had Francis). A reaction to this centralized government was led from the provinces of England and Germany. At the general chapter of 1239, held in Rome under the personal presidency of Gregory IX, Elias was deposed in favor of Albert of Pisa, the former provincial of England, a moderate Observantist. This chapter introduced General Statutes to govern the order and devolved power from the Minister General to the Ministers Provincial sitting in chapter. The next two Ministers General, Haymo of Faversham (1240–44) and Crescentius of Jesi (1244–47), consolidated this greater democracy in the Order but also led the order towards a greater clericalisation. The new Pope Innocent IV supported them in this. In a bull of November 14, 1245, this pope even sanctioned an extension of the system of financial agents, and allowed the funds to be used not simply for those things that were necessary for the friars but also for those that were useful. The Observantist party took a strong stand in opposition to this ruling, and carried on so successful an agitation against the lax General that in 1247, at a chapter held in Lyon, France—where Innocent IV was then residing—he was replaced by the strict Observantist John of Parma (1247–57) and the order refused to implement any provisions of Innocent IV that were laxer than those of Gregory IX.
Elias, who had been excommunicated and taken under the protection of Frederick II, was now forced to give up all hope of recovering his power in the order. He died in 1253, after succeeding by recantation in obtaining the removal of his censures. Under John of Parma, who enjoyed the favor of Innocent IV and Pope Alexander IV, the influence of the order was notably increased, especially by the provisions of the latter pope in regard to the academic activity of the brothers. He not only sanctioned the theological institutes in Franciscan houses, but did all he could to support the friars in the Mendicant Controversy, when the secular Masters of the university of Paris and the Bishops of France combined to attack the Mendicant Orders. It was due to the action of Alexander's representatives, who were obliged to threaten the university authorities with excommunication, that the degree of doctor of theology was finally conceded to the Dominican Thomas Aquinas and the Franciscan Bonaventure (1257), who had previously been able to lecture only as licentiates.


Bonaventure (1221-1274), painting by Claude François, ca. 1650-1660.
The Franciscan Gerard of Borgo San Donnino at this time issued a Joachimite tract and John of Parma was seen as favoring the condemned theology of Joachim of Fiore. To protect the order from its enemies John was forced to step down and recommended Bonaventure as his successor. Bonaventure saw the need to unify the order around a common ideology and both wrote a new life of the founder and collected the order's legislation into the Constitutions of Narbonne, so called because they were ratified by the Order at its chapter held at Narbonne, France, in 1260. In the chapter of Pisa three years later Bonaventure's Legenda maior was approved as the only biography of Francis and all previous biographies were ordered to be destroyed. Bonaventure ruled (1257–74) in a moderate spirit, which is represented also by various works produced by the order in his time—especially by the Expositio regulae written by David of Augsburg soon after 1260.
[edit]1274 - 1300
The successor to Bonaventura, Jerome of Ascoli or Girolamo Masci (1274–79), (the future Pope Nicholas IV), and his successor, Bonagratia of Bologna (1279–85), also followed a middle course. Severe measures were taken against certain extreme Spirituals who, on the strength of the rumor that Pope Gregory X was intending at the Council of Lyon (1274–75) to force the mendicant orders to tolerate the possession of property, threatened both pope and council with the renunciation of allegiance. Attempts were made, however, to satisfy the reasonable demands of the Spiritual party, as in the bull Exiit qui seminat of Pope Nicholas III (1279), which pronounced the principle of complete poverty meritorious and holy, but interpreted it in the way of a somewhat sophistical distinction between possession and usufruct. The bull was received respectfully by Bonagratia and the next two generals, Arlotto of Prato (1285–87) and Matthew of Aqua Sparta (1287–89); but the Spiritual party under the leadership of the Bonaventuran pupil and apocalyptic Pierre Jean Olivi regarded its provisions for the dependence of the friars upon the Pope and the division between brothers occupied in manual labor and those employed on spiritual missions as a corruption of the fundamental principles of the order. They were not won over by the conciliatory attitude of the next general, Raymond Gaufredi (1289–96), and of the Franciscan Pope Nicholas IV (1288–92). The attempt made by the next pope, Pope Celestine V, an old friend of the order, to end the strife by uniting the Observantist party with his own order of hermits (see Celestines) was scarcely more successful. Only a part of the Spirituals joined the new order, and the secession scarcely lasted beyond the reign of the hermit-pope. Pope Boniface VIII annulled Celestine's bull of foundation with his other acts, deposed the general Raymond Gaufredi, and appointed a man of laxer tendency, John de Murro, in his place. The Benedictine section of the Celestines was separated from the Franciscan section, and the latter was formally suppressed by Pope Boniface VIII in 1302. The leader of the Observantists, Olivi, who spent his last years in the Franciscan house at Narbonne and died there in 1298, had pronounced against the extremer "Spiritual" attitude, and given an exposition of the theory of poverty which was approved by the more moderate Observantists, and for a long time constituted their principle.
[edit]Persecution
Under Pope Clement V (1305–14) this party succeeded in exercising some influence on papal decisions. In 1309 Clement had a commission sit at Avignon for the purpose of reconciling the conflicting parties. Ubertino of Casale, the leader, after Olivi's death, of the stricter party, who was a member of the commission, induced the Council of Vienne to arrive at a decision in the main favoring his views, and the papal constitution Exivi de paradiso (1313) was on the whole conceived in the same sense. Clement's successor, Pope John XXII (1316–34), favored the laxer or conventual party. By the bull Quorundam exigit he modified several provisions of the constitution Exivi, and required the formal submission of the Spirituals. Some of them, encouraged by the strongly Observantist general Michael of Cesena, ventured to dispute the Pope's right so to deal with the provisions of his predecessor. Sixty-four of them were summoned to Avignon, and the most obstinate delivered over to the Inquisition, four of them being burned (1318). Shortly before this all the separate houses of the Observantists had been suppressed.
[edit]Renewed controversy on the question of poverty


Franciscan friary in Katowice, Poland
A few years later a new controversy, this time theoretical, broke out on the question of poverty. In his 14 August 1279 bull Exiit qui seminat, Pope Nicholas III had confirmed the arrangement already established by Pope Gregory IX, by which all property given to the Franciscans was vested in the Holy See, which granted the friars the mere use of it. The bull declared that renunciation of ownership of all things "both individually but also in common, for God's sake, is meritorious and holy; Christ, also, showing the way of perfection, taught it by word and confirmed it by example, and the first founders of the Church militant, as they had drawn it from the fountainhead itself, distributed it through the channels of their teaching and life to those wishing to live perfectly".[8][9][10]
Although Exiit qui seminat banned disputing about its contents, the decades that followed saw increasingly bitter disputes about the form of poverty to be observed by Franciscans, with the Spirituals (so called because associated with the Age of the Spirit that Joachim of Fiore had said would begin in 1260)[11] pitched against the Conventual Franciscans.[12] Pope Clement V's bull Exivi de Paradiso of 20 November 1312[13] failed to effect a compromise between the two factions.[11] Clement V's successor, Pope John XXII was determined to suppress what he considered to be the excesses of the Spirituals, who contended eagerly for the view that Christ and his apostles had possessed absolutely nothing, either separately or jointly, and who were citing Exiit qui seminat in support of their view.[14] In 1517, John XXII formally condemned the group of them known as the Fraticelli.[11] On 26 March 1322, he removed the ban on discussion of Nicholas III's bull[15][16] and commissioned experts to examine the idea of poverty based on belief that Christ and the apostles owned nothing. The experts disagreed among themselves, but the majority condemned the idea on the grounds that it would condemn the Church's right to have possessions.[11] The Franciscan chapter held in Perugia in May 1322 declared on the contrary: "To say or assert that Christ, in showing the way of perfection, and the Apostles, in following that way and setting an example to others who wished to lead the perfect life, possessed nothing either severally or in common, either by right of ownership and dominium or by personal right, we corporately and unanimously declare to be not heretical, but true and catholic."[11] By the bull Ad conditorem canonum of 8 December 1322,[17] John XXII, declaring it ridiculous to pretend that every scrap of food given to the friars and eaten by them belonged to the pope, refused to accept ownership over the goods of the Franciscans in future and granted them exemption from the rule that absolutely forbade ownership of anything even in common, thus forcing them to accept ownership.[18] And on 12 November 1523 he issued the short bull Cum inter nonnullos,[19] which declared "erroneous and heretical" the doctrine that Christ and his apostles had no possessions whatever.[14][10][20] John XXII's actions thus demolished the fictitious structure that gave the appearance of absolute poverty to the life of the Franciscan friars.[21]
Influential members of the order protested, such as the minister general Michael of Cesena, the English provincial William of Ockham and Bonagratia of Bergamo. In 1324, Louis the Bavarian sided with the Spirituals and accused the Pope of heresy. In reply to the argument of his opponents that Nicholas III's bull Exiit qui seminat was fixed and irrevocable, John XXII issued the bull "Quia quorundam" of 10 November 1324,[22]in which he declared that it cannot be inferred from the words of the 1279 bull that Christ and the apostles had nothing, adding: "Indeed, it can be inferred rather that the Gospel life lived by Christ and the Apostles did not exclude some possessions in common, since living 'without property' does not require that those living thus should have nothing in common." In 1328 Michael of Cesena was summoned to Avignon to explain the Order's intransigence in refusing the Pope's orders and its complicity with Louis of Bavaria. Michael was imprisoned in Avignon, together with Francesco d'Ascoli, Bonagratia and William of Ockham. In January of that year Louis of Bavaria entered Rome and had himself crowned emperor. Three months later, he declared John XXII deposed and installed the Spiritual Franciscan Pietro Rainalducci as Pope. The Franciscan chapter that opened in Bologna on 28 May reelected Michael of Cesena, who two days before had escaped with his companions from Avignon. But in August Louis the Bavarian and his pope had to flee Rome before an attack by Robert, King of Naples. Only a small part of the Franciscan Order joined the opponents of John XXII, and at a general chapter held in Paris in 1329 the majority of all the houses declared their submission to the Pope. With the bull "Quia vir reprobus" of 16 November 1329,[23] John XXII replied to Michael of Cesena's attacks on Ad conditorem canonum, Cum inter and Quia quorundam. In 1330 Antipope Nicholas V submitted, followed later by the ex-general Michael, and finally, just before his death, by Ockham.[11]
[edit]Separate congregations
Out of all these dissensions in the fourteenth century sprang a number of separate congregations, almost of sects. To say nothing of the heretical parties of the Beghards and Fraticelli, some of which developed within the order on both hermit and cenobitic principles, may here be mentioned:
[edit]Clareni
The Clareni or Clarenini, an association of hermits established on the river Clareno in the march of Ancona by Angelo da Clareno after the suppression of the Franciscan Celestines by Boniface VIII. It maintained the principles of Olivi, and, outside of Umbria, spread also in the kingdom of Naples, where Angelo died in 1337. Like several other smaller congregations, it was obliged in 1568 under Pope Pius V to unite with the general body of Observantists.
[edit]Minorites of Narbonne
As a separate congregation, this originated through the union of a number of houses which followed Olivi after 1308. It was limited to southwestern France and, its members being accused of the heresy of the Beghards, was suppressed by the Inquisition during the controversies under John XXII.
[edit]Reform of Johannes de Vallibus


Franciscan convent at Lopud in Croatia
This was founded in the hermitage of St. Bartholomew at Brugliano near Foligno in 1334. The congregation was suppressed by the Franciscan general chapter in 1354; reestablished in 1368 by Paolo de' Trinci of Foligno; confirmed by Gregory XI. in 1373, and spread rapidly from Central Italy to France, Spain, Hungary and elsewhere. Most of the Observantist houses joined this congregation by degrees, so that it became known simply as the "brothers of the regular Observance." It acquired the favor of the popes by its energetic opposition to the heretical Fraticelli, and was expressly recognized by the Council of Constance (1415). It was allowed to have a special vicar-general of its own and legislate for its members without reference to the conventual part of the order. Through the work of such men as Bernardino of Siena, Giovanni da Capistrano, and Dietrich Coelde (b. 1435? at Munster; was a member of the Brethren of the Common Life, died December 11, 1515), it gained great prominence during the fifteenth century. By the end of the Middle Ages, the Observantists, with 1,400 houses, comprised nearly half of the entire order. Their influence brought about attempts at reform even among the Conventuals, including the quasi-Observantist brothers living under the rule of the Conventual ministers (Martinianists or "Observantes sub ministris"), such as the male Colletans, later led by Boniface de Ceva in his reform attempts principally in France and Germany; the reformed congregation founded in 1426 by the Spaniard Philip de Berbegal and distinguished by the special importance they attached to the little hood (cappuciola); the Neutri, a group of reformers originating about 1463 in Italy, who tried to take a middle ground between the Conventuals and Observantists, but refused to obey the heads of either, until they were compelled by the Pope to affiliate with the regular Observantists, or with those of the Common Life; the Caperolani, a congregation founded about 1470 in North Italy by Peter Caperolo, but dissolved again on the death of its founder in 1481; the Amadeists, founded by the noble Portuguese Amadeo, who entered the Franciscan order at Assisi in 1452, gathered around him a number of adherents to his fairly strict principles (numbering finally twenty-six houses) and, died in the odor of sanctity in 1482.
[edit]Unification
Projects for a union between the two main branches of the order were put forth not only by the Council of Constance but by several popes, without any positive result. By direction of Pope Martin V, John of Capistrano drew up statutes which were to serve as a basis for reunion, and they were actually accepted by a general chapter at Assisi in 1430; but the majority of the Conventual houses refused to agree to them, and they remained without effect. At Capistrano's request Eugenius IV put forth a bull (Ut sacra minorum, 1446) looking to the same result, but again nothing was accomplished. Equally unsuccessful were the attempts of the Franciscan Pope Sixtus IV, who bestowed a vast number of privileges on both the original mendicant orders, but by this very fact lost the favor of the Observantists and failed in his plans for reunion. Julius II succeeded in doing away with some of the smaller branches, but left the division of the two great parties untouched. This division was finally legalized by Leo X, after a general chapter held in Rome in 1517, in connection with the reform-movement of the Fifth Lateran Council, had once more declared the impossibility of reunion. The less strict principles of the Conventuals, permitting the possession of real estate and the enjoyment of fixed revenues, were recognized as tolerable, while the Observantists, in contrast to this usus moderatus, were held strictly to their own usus arctus or pauper. All of the groups that followed the Franciscan Rule literally were united to the Observantists and the right to elect the Minister General of the Order, together with the seal of the Order, was given to this united grouping. This grouping, since it adhered more closely to the rule of the founder, was allowed to claim a certain superiority over the Conventuals. The Observantist general (elected now for six years, not for life) inherited the title of "Minister-General of the Whole Order of St. Francis" and was granted the right to confirm the choice of a head for the Conventuals, who was known as "Master-General of the Friars Minor Conventual"—although this privilege never became practically operative.
[edit]New World missions

Main articles: Spanish missions in California, Spanish missions in New Mexico, and Junipero Serra
[edit]Modern times

Main article: Franciscan Order in modern times
[edit]Distinguished Franciscans


Roger Bacon (c1214-1294), statue (19th century) in the Oxford University Museum of Natural History.


Bernardino of Siena (1380-1440), painted by Jacopo Bellini (c1400-c1470).
The Franciscan order boasts a number of distinguished members. From its first century can be cited the three great scholastics Alexander of Hales, Bonaventure, and John Duns Scotus, the "Doctor of Wonders" Roger Bacon, and the well-known mystic authors and popular preachers David of Augsburg and Berthold of Regensburg.
During the Middle Ages noteworthy members included Nicholas of Lyra, the Biblical commentator Bernardino of Siena, preachers John of Capistrano, Oliver Maillard, and Michel Menot, and historians Luke Wadding and Antoine Pagi.
In the field of Christian art, during the later Middle Ages, the Franciscan movement exercised considerable influence, especially in Italy. Several great painters of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, especially Cimabue and Giotto, who, though they were not friars, were spiritual sons of Francis in the wider sense, and the plastic masterpieces of the latter, as well as the architectural conceptions of both himself and his school, show the influence of Franciscan ideals. The Italian Gothic style, whose earliest important monument is the great convent church at Assisi (built 1228–53), was cultivated as a rule principally by members of the order or men under their influence.
The early spiritual poetry of Italy was partially inspired by Francis himself, who was followed by Thomas of Celano, Bonaventure, and Jacopone da Todi. Through a tradition which held him to have been a member of the Franciscan Third Order, even Dante may be included within this artistic tradition (cf. especially Paradiso, xi. 50).
Other famous members of the Franciscan family include Anthony of Padua, William of Occam, François Rabelais, Alexander of Hales, Giovanni da Pian del Carpini, Pio of Pietrelcina, Maximilian Kolbe, Pasquale Sarullo, Mamerto Esquiú, Gabriele Allegra, Junipero Serra, Father Simpliciano of the Nativity, Mychal F. Judge, Fray Angelico Chavez, and Joseph of Cupertino.
[edit]Poor Clares

Main article: Poor Clares
The Poor Clares comprise several orders of nuns in the Catholic Church. The Poor Clares were the second Franciscan order to be established by Saints Clare of Assisi and Francis of Assisi.
[edit]Third Order

The Third Order has its origins in the movement of the Penitents. These were people who desired to grow in holiness in their daily lives without joining a religious order. Seeing a need, St. Francis created the Brothers and Sisters of Penance. Eventually some members of the Third Order wanted to live in community and take vows. The Third Order split into the Third Order Regular and Third Order Secular (now known as the Secular Franciscan Order.)
[edit]Secular Franciscan Order
Main article: Secular Franciscan Order
During his lifetime, many married men and women asked St. Francis if they could embrace his style of life, but of course, due to their secular state, they were not able to enter into the First Order or into the Poor Clares. For this reason, he founded a Secular order to which lay and married men and women could belong and live according to the Gospel. Nowadays, this part of the Third Order is known as Secular Franciscan Order and is numerous and spread around the world. The original Rule, given by St. Francis in 1221, was slightly modified during the centuries to be adapted to the changing times, and now the last one was given by Pope Paul VI in 1978.
[edit]Third Order Regular
Main article: Third Order of St. Francis


Mary Frances Schervier (1819-1876) was a member of the Third Order of St. Francis.
Within a century of the death of St. Francis, members of the Third Order began to live in common, in an attempt to follow a more ascetical way of life. Blessed Angela of Foligno (+1309) was foremost among those who achieved great depths in their lives of prayer and service of the poor.
Among the men, the Third Order Regular[24] is an international community of priests and brothers who desire to emphasize the works of mercy and on-going conversion. The community is also known as the Franciscan Friars, T.O.R., and was originally founded in 1447 by a papal decree that united several communities of hermits, following the Third Order Rule. They strive to "rebuild the Church" in areas of high school and college education, parish ministry, church renewal, social justice, campus ministry, hospital chaplaincies, foreign missions, and other ministries in places where the Church is needed.[25]
Following the formal recognition of the members of religious tertiary communities, the following centuries saw a steady growth of such communities, across Europe. Initially, the women's communities took a monastic form of life, either voluntarily or under pressure from ecclesiastical superiors. The great figure of this development was St. Hyacintha Mariscotti. As Europe entered the upheavals of the modern age, new communities arose, which were able to focus more exclusively on social service, especially during the immediate post-Napoleonic period. An example of this is the Blessed Mary Frances Schervier.
This movement continued in North America, as various congregations arose from one coast to another, in answer to the needs of the large emigrant communities, flooding in the cities of the United States and Canada.
[edit]Franciscans International

Franciscans International [26] is a Non-governmental organization (NGO) with General Consultative status at the United Nations, uniting the voices of Franciscan brothers and sisters from around the world. It operates under the sponsorship of the Conference of the Franciscan Family (CFF) and serve all Franciscans and the global community by bringing grassroots Franciscans to the United Nations forums in New York and Geneva. It brings the spiritual and ethical values of the Franciscans to the United Nations and international organizations.
[edit]Ecumenical, Non-Roman Catholic and Non-denominational Franciscans

One of the results of the Oxford Movement in the Anglican Church during the 19th century was the re-establishment of religious orders, including some of Franciscan inspiration. The principal Anglican communities in the Franciscan tradition are the Community of St. Francis (women, founded 1905), the Poor Clares of Reparation (P.C.R.), the Society of Saint Francis (men, founded 1934), and the Community of St Clare (women, enclosed). There is also a Third Order known as the Third Order Society of St Francis (T.S.S.F.).
Another officially sanctioned Anglican order with a more contemplative focus is the order of the Little Brothers of Francis in the Anglican Church of Australia.[27]
Two ecumenical Franciscan Orders within the Anglican heritage are the Order of Servant Franciscans (OSF)[28] and the Conventual Community of Saint Francis (CCSF). The members of the Order of Servant Franciscans (OSF) are committed to "the process of becoming" ministers of Christ's message of reconciliation and love, as demonstrated by the holy lives of Saints Francis and Clare. The OSF is a dispersed third-order secular community of lay and ordained members from a variety of jurisdictions.
A U.S.-founded order within the Anglican world communion is the Seattle-founded Order of Saint Francis (OSF) an open, inclusive, and contemporary expression of an Anglican First Order of Friars. There is also an order of Clares in Seattle (Diocese of Olympia)The Little Sisters of St. Clare, where the OSF is officially headquartered.
There is also a small Anglican order called The Company of Jesus with both Franciscan and Benedictine charisms.
There is a young Order of Ecumenical Franciscans that started in the United States.[29]
There are also some small Franciscan communities within European Protestant and Old Catholic Churches, and The Saint Francis Ecumenical Society – [30] Ecumenical Franciscan Society from Eastern Europe (Lutheran, Catholic, Orthodox, Anglican and free Protestant members). There are some Franciscan orders in Lutheran Churches, including the Order of Lutheran Franciscans.
The masculine branch of the Evangelical Sisterhood of Mary, the Evangelische Kanaan Franziskus-Bruderschaft (Kanaan Franciscan Brothers) follows a franciscan tradition.
An order of Franciscans founded in the United Kingdom in 2004 Companions of Jesus (CJ) is non-denominational.
[edit]Visions and Stigmata



The Stigmatisation of St. Francis
Among the many Catholic orders, Franciscans have proportionally reported higher ratios of stigmata and have claimed proportionally higher ratios of visions of Jesus and Mary. Saint Francis of Assisi himself was one of the very first reported cases of stigmata, and perhaps the most famous stigmatic of modern times is Saint Padre Pio, a Capuchin, who also reported visions of Jesus and Mary. Pio's stigmata persisted for over fifty years and he was examined by numerous physicians in the 20th century, who confirmed the existence of the wounds, but none of whom could produce a medical explanation for the fact that his bleeding wounds would never get infected. According to Encyclopædia Britannica, his wounds healed once, but reappeared.[31] According to the Columbia Encyclopedia [32] some medical authorities who examined Padre Pio's wounds were inclined to believe that the stigmata were connected with nervous or cataleptic hysteria. According to Answers.com [33] the wounds were examined by Luigi Romanelli, chief physician of the City Hospital of Barletta, for about one year. Dr. Giorgio Festa, a private practitioner also examined them in 1920 and 1925. Professor Giuseppe Bastianelli, physician to Pope Benedict XV agreed that the wounds existed but made no other comment. Pathologist Dr. Amico Bignami of the University of Rome also observed the wounds, but made no diagnosis.
[edit]Franciscan Custody of the Holy Land

Main article: Custodian of the Holy Land
After an intense apostolic activity in Italy, in 1219 Francis went to Egypt with the Fifth Crusade, to announce the Gospel to the Saracens. He met with the Sultan Malek-al-Kamel, initiating a spirit of dialogue and understanding between Christianity and Islam. The Franciscan presence in the Holy Land started in 1217, when the province of Syria was established, with Brother Elias as Minister. By 1229, the friars had a small house near the fifth station of the Via Dolorosa. In 1272 the sultan Baibars allowed the Franciscans to settle in the Cenacle on Mount Sion. Later on, in 1309, they also settled in the Holy Sepulchre and in Bethlehem. In 1335 King Robert d'Angiò of Naples, and his wife, Sancia di Maiorca, bought the Cenacle and gave it to the Franciscans. Pope Clement VI, by the Bulls "Gratias agimus" and "Nuper charissimae" (1342), declared the Franciscans as the official custodians of the Holy Places in the name of the Catholic Church.
The Franciscan Custody of the Holy Land is still in force today.[34]
[edit]Contributions



Gabriele Allegra (1907-1976) of the Studium Biblicum Franciscanum.
The Franciscans established the Studium Biblicum Franciscanum as an academic society based in Jerusalem and Hong Kong for the study of scripture. The Hong Kong branch founded by the Venerable Gabriele Allegra produced the first complete translation of the Catholic Bible in Chinese in 1968 after a 40 year effort.[35] The Studium Biblicum Translation is often considered the Chinese Bible among Catholics.
The early efforts of another Franciscan, namely Giovanni di Monte Corvino, who had attempted a first translation of the Bible in Beijing in the 14th century provided the initial spark for Gabriele Allegra's 40 year undertaking, when at the age of 21 he happened to attend the 6th centenary celebration for Monte Corvino.
Hilbert, Cat

(no subject)

Cult of the Holy Spirit
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


A symbol of the faith: the dove of the Holy Spirit, as seen on one of the standards carried in ritual processions
The Cult of the Holy Spirit (Portuguese: Culto do Divino Espírito Santo) is a religious sub-culture, inspired by Christian millenarian mystics, associated with Azorean Catholic identity, consisting of iconography, architecture, and religious practices that have continued in many communities of the archipelago as well as the broader Portuguese diaspora. Beyond the Azores, the Cult of the Holy Spirit is alive in parts of Brazil (where it was established three centuries ago) and pockets of Portuguese settlers in North America. The devotion of the Holy Spirit is part of classical Catholic dogma, and represents traditional rituals and religious celebrations of these faith communities.[1]
Contents [hide]
1 History
1.1 Joachimites
1.2 Cult
1.3 Spiritual tenets
2 Impérios
2.1 Irmandade
2.2 Império
2.3 Mordomo
3 Symbols
4 Rituals
4.1 Procession
4.2 Coronation
4.3 Bodo
4.3.1 Esmola
4.4 Função
4.4.1 Briança
4.4.2 Ceia
5 External links
6 References
[edit]History



The dove: iconographic symbol of the Holy Spirit
[edit]Joachimites
The worship of the Holy Spirit, its central doctrine, was promoted by Joachim of Fiore,[2] a millenarian prophet who postulated the beginning of a third age, based on his interpretation of the Book of Revelation. This third age would be governed by the Holy Spirit and would represent a monastic governance in which the hierarchy of the Church would be unnecessary and infidels would unite with Christians. These theories became associated with the Franciscan Order and feared by the hierarchy of the Church, which would persecute some of the millenarian followers, when Pope Alexander IV repudiated the theories in 1256.[3]
[edit]Cult
Two hundred years later, there was a rebirth of the popularity of the doctrines in the Azores; their religious manifestations, rituals and symbols began to permeate the islands and, consequently, persist until today. These acts of faith were heavily influenced by Franciscan spiritualists, who were the first religious orders that colonized the Azores, and who brought with them those traditions that were being extinguished on the continent by Catholic Church orthodoxy. Here, in isolated communities under environmental pressures and the uncertainties of life, the millenarian rites of the Holy Spirit were accepted and fostered. The Azores, and those communities that had their origins in the archipelago, became the last outposts of the Joachimite doctrines.
The origins of the modern cult and its rituals are not definitively understood. The dominant theory postulates that the celebrations were introduced in Portugal by Elizabeth of Aragon.[4] The Cult's principal center of devotion was in Tomar, also the location of the priory of the Order of Christ, which was charged with the spirituality of newly-discovered lands (including the Azores). Another center was Alenquer, the location of which, in the first years of the 14th century, Queen Elizabeth introduced to Portugal the first celebration of the Império do Divino Espírito Santo (English: Empire of the Divine Holy Spirit), probably influenced by Franciscan spiritualists, who there, founded the first Franciscan Convent in Portugal. From there the Cult expanded, first in Portugal (Aldeia Galega, Alenquer, Sintra, Tomar, Lisbon) and, later, accompanied the Portuguese during their Atlantic discoveries.
The new colonies were, from the beginning, subordinate to the priory in Tomar, later the archbishop of Funchal, and finally, the new bishopric of Angra do Heroísmo, which were overseen by the Order of Christ, who nominated new clerics, oriented the faithful and supervised the religious development. In this context, references to the proliferation of the cult of the Holy Spirit appeared early, and in a general way, throughout the archipelago. Gaspar Frutuoso, writing 150 years after the beginning of the island's settlement, indicated that this adoration existed in all the islands; this expansion was tolerated, if not promoted by the Order of Christ. Also, references from the time, in the Constituições Sinodais da Diocese de Angra (approved in 1559) by the Bishop of Angra, Frair Jorge de Santiago, demonstrated that some attention was placed on the Cults by the episcopal authorities.
The existence of the Irmandades do Divino Espírito Santo (English: Brotherhoods of the Divine Holy Spirit) were first identified in the 16th century. The first hospital constructed in the Azores (1498), under the Santa Casa da Misericórdia of Angra, received its current name, the Hospital do Santo Espírito. The distribution of food (meats, bread, milk) was already an important part of the charity common in the middle of the 16th century.
From then on, and in particular after the beginning of the 18th century, the Cult of the Holy Spirit assumed a position of importance in Azorean culture, becoming a unifier of the population in the various islands. With Azorean emigration, the Cult was transplanted into Brazil, where by the end of the 18th century there existed feast days in Rio de Janeiro, in Bahia, and other zones where Azorean immigrants settled, such as Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul and Pernambuco. In the 19th century, the traditions were expanded to Hawaii, Massachusetts, and California in the United States, as well as to Ontario, Quebec, and British Columbia in Canada.
The Feast of the Empire of the Divine Holy Spirit was also celebrated on board of the naus on their way to Brazil and to India in the 16th century. In a letter sent to Italy from Goa (India), the Jesuit missionary Fulvio Gregori reports: "The Portuguese used to elect an Emperor by the Feast of Pentecost and it was so also in this ship St. Francisco. Indeed, they chose a boy as Emperor on the eve of Pentecost, in the midst of great pomp. They dressed him very richly and then put on his head the imperial crown. They also chosen for him lords and officers at orders, so that the captain was appointed overseer over his house, another gentleman was appointed cupbearer, each with its office at the disposal of the Emperor. Entered to this even the officers of the ship, the master, the pilot, etc.. Then, on the day of Pentecost (Easter or Holy Spirit), all dressed to perfection, it was an altar on the bow of the ship, for there be more space, with beautiful cloths and silverware. Then, they led the Emperor to Mass, with music, drums and party. There he was sitting in a chair, with velvet cushions, the head crown and scepter in his hand, surrounded by their court, hearing in the meantime the salvos of the artillery. The courtiers of the Emperor ate, and then, finally, they served everyone here on board, around three hundred people."[5]
[edit]Spiritual tenets
Generally, there are several prescribed tenets that organize this religious movement, that were derived from Joachimite dogma:
Hope (Portuguese: esperança) — the faithful seek the fulfillment of religious dogma that assumes a period of human spiritual development and brotherhood, and in which the Holy Spirit is the fountain of knowledge and order;
Faith in the Divine (Portuguese: Fé no Divino) — that the Holy Spirit is present in all places, it knows all and sees all, and the faithful recognize that there are no secrets from the Holy Spirit. Offenses are severely punitive; O Divino Espírito Santo é vingativo (English: The Holy Spirit is vengeful), and holy vows/promises to God should be kept. Seven spiritual virtues guide the brotherhood of the faithful: wisdom, understanding, counsel, fortitude, knowledge, piety, and fear of the Lord.
Egalitarianism — all brothers are equal, and all can be mordomos (English: leader of the brotherhood), and all may be crowned in their ritualized functions as the emperor, receiving equal respect and obedience when invested with this authority: it is the practical application of the Joachimite principles.
Solidarity and Charity — in the distribution of alms (meat, soup and milk traditionally), the poor are privileged recipients who equally take part in the celebrations, while all offenses are pardoned in order to receive the Holy Spirit.
Autonomy from the Church; the cult of the Holy Spirit is not dependent on the formal organization of the Church, nor are the clergy needed to participate in the practices; there are no intermediaries between the devotees and the Divine. Over time, in practice, this tenant of Joachmite spirituality has become more obscure, as the Church plays a role in blessing the events (through processions to the local church and masses held auspiciously for the feast)
[edit]Impérios



A modern treatro or império in Porto Martins, Terceira
The organization of the cult, with some variation between the islands, and between the Azorean diaspora includes the following structures:
[edit]Irmandade
The Irmandade (English: Brotherhood) is the organizational nucleus of the cult, comprising the brothers, voluntarily registered (and accepted) and who are all equal in rights and responsibilities. Although they have historically been exclusively masculine, both women and men are accepted, as are members of different origins or titles. This rule was rarely violated, although on some islands there did exist Impérios dos nobres, which only accepted brothers from the local aristocracy.[6] Each irmandade is a territorial unit, constituted as local associations of neighbours, grouping families and residents from within a particular parish or locality. These groups have defined compromises, based on consensual rules that are not written, but recognized by the members. In cases where the diocese or authorities have attempted to impose or intervene in the businesses of these groups, there has generally been passive resistance and indignation from its members.
[edit]Império
Each irmandade is organized around the Império do Divino Espírito Santo, normally a small structure, with a distinct architectural style where the faithful conduct their rituals. The architecture of the Impérios vary from island to island; from simple tile-roofed buildings (such as in Santa Maria) to grande chapels with ornate facades and crowned with an imperial crown (in Terceira). It is used as a place to store the reliqueries, penants, symbols; to cook and/or distribute the offerings; and to perform some of the religious services associated with the event. The appearance of permanent impérios began in the last half of the 19th century, probably resulting from money remitted from emigrants in the Brazilian and/or Californian diaspora. Until this point, the cult would realize their services in treatros, structures constructed principally for the events, that were later torn down. The Azorean diaspora, particularly those from New England and Canada, in addition to small strucutres, would construct larger enclosed salons owing to the conditions in these environments.
[edit]Mordomo
During each celebration, one member of the irmandade would receive the designation of mordomo, which was normally made by drawing straws or name selection from a hat, usually by a young child.[7] Many irmandades admit that voluntarism is common, when one of the brothers will make an offering or promessa (English: promise) to the Holy Spirit, necessitating an act of benevolence and charity. The mordomo is responsible for coordinating the collection of funds for the feast, the organization of the event, the peoples invited, the purchase of meat, bread, wine, etc. and generally seen as the supreme authority of the brothers during the event.
[edit]Symbols



An altar in honor of the Holy Spirit with Crown, an example from the island of São Jorge


Crown, scepter and orb of the Holy Spirit
See also: Seven gifts of the Holy Spirit
The rituals of the cult include various symbolic objects that are typically incorporated during the ceremonies; they include:
Crown, scepter and orb — these are most important symbols of the Império, and assumes a central place during the celebrations. The crown is an imperial design, in silver, normally with four arms that meet at a golden orb (also in silver) surmounted by the dove of the Holy Spirit. Each crown comes with a silver scepter, again, surmounted with the dove of the Holy Spirit. In addition, the crown and scepters are decorated with ribbons of white, and mounted on a silver plate with a tall rest. The size of the crown varies, and in general, each irmandade may have one large and two smaller crowns, used to represent the Império of the Holy Spirit. In addition to being used in crowning ceremonies, it is considered an honor to transport the crown or let it remain in your home, which occurs with the brotherhood routinely. Throughout the years, the crown will circulate, remaining in a place of honor in the household, where nightly prayers would occur. Although, traditionally, the process of moving the crowns from household to household involved a cortege, escorted by the brotherhood, in modern times, the movement is not as ornamented.
Flag — the pennant, of brilliant red color, is a double-side quadrangular dimension (five palms on the side), knitted with a relief of the white dove of the Holy Spirit and rays of gold and white irradiating from its center. The flagstaff, made of wood, is two meters in height (although some are smaller or taller) surmounted with the dove of the Holy Spirit in tin or silver. The flag will accompany the crown and is always present in the liturgical ceremonies and crowning; it is an honor to be selected to carry the flag during the ceremonial cortege. A smaller flag is usually raised near the location of the crown, wherever it stays, and it is common to see white flags line the squares during the ceremonies.
Hymn — the Hino do Espírito Santo (English: Hymn of the Holy Spirit), composed at the end of the 19th century, is used by the bands and sung during the crowning ceremonies. Although primiarly used in these ceremonies, some of its chords have been inserted into the Hymn of the Azores (the regional national anthem.
Mace and ribbon — inspired by the ceremonial maces carried traditionally by municipal judges or officials, the ceremony and cortège is accompanied by a variable number of mace-bearers (but usually 12). The wooded maces, usually 1.5 meters in length, sometimes include a base for a candle, or surmounted with a tin or silver dove. During the cortège the mace-bearers surround the crown-bearer, in some cases the maces are joined together to form a rectangle, and the crown-bearer walks within the space. In some irmandades an extra mace (sometimes painted in white) will be provided to an individual who will be responsible for maintaining the procession in good order. It is occasionally, referred colloquially as the "enxota porcos" (English: pig incentive), likely a reference to a time when animals roamed the streets, and had to be forced to the side of the road. The organization would normally select people who needed a position of honor: mostly young people.
Foliões do Divino — a small group of about five musicians that sing religious hymns, accompanied by drum, cymbal, and tambourine, who visit the homes of the brotherhood.[8] They are also included in the transference of the crown, at the collection of donations, during the procession, the rituals and the distribution of offerings. On the island of Santa Maria as well as the area of Beira on São Jorge, the foliões are part of more complex rituals that have disappeared from other islands, involving the liturgy of the Holy Spirit.
[edit]Rituals



A coronation ceremony in the first half of the 20th century
[edit]Procession
Also, referred to as the cortège, império or mudança (English: the move); on Easter day, the crowns are transported to the church, where they are placed on the altar, until the end, when they ceremonially crown the recipient (coronation). The emperor will then depart for his home, accompanied by his cortège and the brotherhood, and led by the Holy Spirit's standard, the foliões, the crowns surrounded by the poles (in a rectangular form) and trailed by the faithful. Normally, a band will follow the cortège with cheerful processional music, although they may be accompanied alone by the Foliões of the Divino. Upon arriving at the emperor's home, the crowns are placed on an alter of honour of wood and adorned with white paper and flowers, to remain throughout the week. Every evening the neighbours and faith community gather at the home where traditionally some food and dancing may have occurred, but usually ends with the recitation of the rosary and benedictions to the Holy Spirit. On the following Sunday, the crowns depart once again with the cortège for the church, where they are received by the local parish priest, who recites the Magnificat (a traditional pastoral benediction). The process, traditionally, repeats itself until the seventh Sunday following Easter (referred to as the Domingo do Bodo), and in some cases until the eighth Sunday following Easter (traditionally referred to as the Segundo Bodo or Domingo da Trindade).[9] The modern tradition, influenced by religious immigrants, is shortened to include a brief cortège procession (usually on the same day of the coronation), and ceremonial transfers of the crown to the home of the emperor, all performed throughout the summer.[10]
[edit]Coronation
The coronation (English: coroação), which concluded the principal religious ceremonies involved the placement of the silver crown on the head of the emporer, or persons destined to hold it in the ceremony, by the parish priest. Similarly, after ritually kissing the dove on the silver sceptre, the faithful are empowered to rise with the crowns while benedictions are made in the name of the Holy Spirit, while the hymn is played. Immediately following this ceremony, the cortege is reformed and proceeds to exit the church, with the priest singing the Magnificat once again.
[edit]Bodo
Traditionally, on the seventh Sunday following Easter (Pentecost Sunday) the faithful realize the bodo. On this day, the cortège, after leaving the church travel to the império, where the Holy Spirit's standard and the crowns are placed in exhibition. In front of the império, on long bunks, are placed offerings or esmolas that, after being blessed, are distributed to the gathered. The brotherhood receive the people and invite them to freely partake of bread and wine, while meat, sugar pastries and massa sovada (traditional Portuguese sweet bread) are offered to the participants, organized by the mordomo. At the end of the Bodo, the crowns are collected and the cortege ferries them to the home of the mordomo. The Monday following this seventh Sunday of Easter, is Azores Day, or as is it is traditionally known, the Dia da Pombinha (English: Day of the Dove).
[edit]Esmola
The esmola or pensão (English: charitable offering) is constituted by a portion of beef cattle (specifically killed for the event), bread and vinho de cheiro (a high alcohol content wine derived from the Isabel caste grapes). It is distributed to the brotherhood, as well as the families in most need.
[edit]Função
The function, is the gathering of neighbors, family and friends for a ritualized meal that includes invited guests of the principal who took on a promise to the Holy Spirit.[11] The meal consists of the Holy Spirit Soup, a meat broth that is applied to buttered bread and tempered with mint leaves, either accompanied with the cooked meat used in its preparation, Portuguese sweet bread and sweet rice puree sprinkled with cinnamon. There are many variations on the meat broth recipe that includes the methods of preparing the soup, the availability of side dishes or the consistency of the soup. On the island of Terceira, for example, the Holy Spirit Soup is accompanied by an alcatra, a plate of meat cooked in red wine in an earthen pot. The functionsymbolizes community sharing, and occurs in the presence of the crowns and flag, accompanied by hymns to the Holy Spirit, normally led by the Foliões.
Today, these functions are also held outside the normal religious context, on the Day of the Azores, during protocol receptions or more recently as tourist inspired events to promote the cultre of the Azores (and uncommonly open to the public). The largest function recorded, occurred on 10 June 2000, when 8000 participants gathered on the Rua de São Pedro, in Angra do Heroísmo, in the presence of the President of the Portuguese Republic, the Prime Minister and President of the Regional Government, as well as the acreditted members of the Portuguese diplomatic corp and other invited dignitaries.
[edit]Briança
As part of the rituals leading-up to the function, a cortege will also proceed through the community with a cow (which will later be slaughtered for the feast), decorated with colourful paper flowers and accompanied by the foliões.[12] This secondary cortege, proceeding the events of the coronation and bodo, stops at the door of each family who contributes money, while hymns and chants are made, and the traditional briançamusic played.[13]
[edit]Ceia
The Ceia dos criadores are meals organized in honor of the farmers that have contributed to animals for the meal, or whom have contributed gifts to the brotherhood. Much like the briança it serves as a moment to collect funds for the events, being a tradition normally to invite illustrious social figures or local politicians.
[edit]External links

Carta do Secretário de Estado do Vaticano celebrando o VIII centenário da morte de Fiore.
[edit]References

Notes
^ In its original sense, cult referred to accepted religious practice — in sharp contrast to the term's modern, negative connotation.
^ Maria Santos Montez (2007), p. 170
^ Maria Santos Montez (2007), pp.169–170
^ Maria Santos Montez (2007), p. 169
^ http://www.portaldodivino.com/India/india.htm
^ The most recognized exception was the Império dos Nobres in Horta, on the island of Faial, whose membership was composed of local nobility. Today, the responsibility of the Império is conferred in the local Câmara Municipal of Horta.
^ Maria Santos Montez (2007), p.170
^ Maria Santos Montez (2007), p. 172
^ Maria Santos Montez (2007), p. 174
^ The shortened timeline was likely influenced by many immigrants who were limited to shorter vacations, most likely in the summer, but whom wished to follow the spirit of their traditions.
^ Maria Santos Montez (2007), p. 175
^ Maria Santos Montez (2007), pp. 169, 174
^ Maria Santos Montez (2007), p. 174
Sources
Franco, José Eduardo; Mourão, José Augusto (2005) (in Portuguese). A Influência de Joaquim de Flora em Portugal e na Europa. Escritos de Natália Correia sobre a utopia da Idade Feminina do Espírito Santo [The Influence of Joaquim de Fiore in Portugal and in Europe. Writings of Natália Correia on the Utopia of the Feminist Age of the Holy Spirit]. Lisbon, Portugal: Roma Editora.
Falbel, Nachman (June/August 1996). "São Bento e a ordo monachorum de Joaquim de Fiore (1136-1202)" (in Portuguese). Revista. São Paulo, Brazil. pp. 273–276.
Rossatto, Noeli Dutra (2004) (in Portuguese). Joaquim de Fiore: Trindade e Nova Era [Joaquim de Fiore: Trinity and the New Age]. Porto Alegre, Portugal: Edipucrs.
Rossatto, Noeli Dutra; Lupi, Carlos Eduardo Bastos (2003) (in Portuguese). O simbolismo das Festas do Divino [The Symbolism of the Feasts of the Divine]. Santa Maria, Azores: FACOS-UFSM.
Montez, Maria Santos (2007). The Imperio in the Azores: The Five Senses in Rituals to the Holy Spirit. Traditiones. pp. 169–176.
Hackmann, Geraldo Luiz Borges (1998) (in Portuguese). O espírito santo e a teologia hoje [The Holy Spirit and Modern Theology]. Teologia 12.